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Table 1.

Experimental action potential (AP), Ca2+ transient (CT) and force twitch (FT) biomarker ranges used to calibrate the control population of human ventricular electro-mechanical in silico models and extended ranges for biomarkers used to classify non-ImP models in ageing populations.

Biomarker Min Value Max Value Biomarker Min Value Max Value
Vrest -95mV -80mV CTpeak 0.5 11M 2.5 11M
Vpeak 10mV 55mV CTDpeak 50 ms
dV/dtmax 100V/s 1000V/s CTD50 65 ms 420 ms
APD40 85ms 320ms CTD90 220 ms 785 ms
APD50 110ms 350ms FTd 10
APD90 180ms 440ms FTpeak 150
Tri90-40 50ms 150ms FTpeak/FTd Ageing 4 50
Biomarker Min Value Max Value Biomarker Min Value Max Value
CTpeak 3.0 iiM FTd 10
CTD90 900ms APD90 900ms

Abbreviations: Vrest, resting membrane potential; dV/dtmax, maximum upstroke velocity; Vpeak, peak voltage; CTd, CTpeak, Ca2+ transient diastolic and peak values; FTpeak, FTd, systolic and diastolic force during the twitch. APDxx, AP duration at XX% of repolarization; Tri90-40, AP triangulation, defined as the difference between APD90 and APD40; CTDXX, Ca2+ transient duration at XX% of decay. Both AP and Ca2+ duration’s were computed starting from the instant of maximum dV/dtmax.

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