Open Access

Table 1.

Summary description of data.

Timeframe: 1996-2015
Countries: 14 countries covering 70% of the volume of wine production in 2016 (Global Wine Markets, 1860 to 2016 database)
Old World Producers: France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom
New World Producers: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, New Zealand, Russian Federation, South Africa, United States
Selected main producing regions: Italy (i.e., Piemonte, Veneto, Toscana, Puglia, Sicilia), France (i.e., Alsace, Champagne, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Languedoc- Roussillon, Provence), Spain (i.e., Andalucia, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Catalonia, Galicia, Rioja), and Germany (i.e., Baden, Mosel, Pfalz- Rheinhessen, Rheingau), Australia (i.e., Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia), the United States (i.e., California, Oregon, Washington, New York)
Climate: country-specific monthly weather data, collected from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia, and aggregated in annual and seasonal climatologies (i.e., rolling 30- years averages) of temperature (in °C) and precipitation (mm); seasonal climatologies adjusted for reverse seasonality. Daily weather data collected from the Datasets of the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System and Software, developed by Agri4Cast of the European Commission, for the main wine producing regions of Italy, France, Spain, Germany, and aggregated in annual climatologies of temperature (°C) and precipitation (mm). Monthly weather data collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) for the main wine producing States of the US and from the Bureau of Meteorology of the Australian Government, both aggregated in annual climatologies of temperature (°C) and precipitation (mm).
Productivity: country-specific annual data on wine production and excess of production (in 1000 hl) derived from the OIV database.
Trade: bilateral annual imports and exports (in 1000 US$) for each country- pairs in the sample, collected from the UN Comtrade database; trade data aggregated the four-digit level of the Harmonised System classification for the category wine of fresh grapes (HS 4-Digit 1996: 2204).
Non-tariff measures: country-pair specific number of bilateral and multilateral NTMs in force (modelled also as dummies), aggregated at the HS 4-digit level, collected from the UNCTAD’s global database on NTMs; details available for each type of NTM (e.g., TBT) and sub-category of NTM (e.g., Restricted use of certain substances, TBT regulations on transport and storage).
Tariffs: country-pair specific average tariffs (simple and trade weighted), aggregated at the HS 4-digit level, collected from the World Bank’s World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) database; details available for each type of tariff (e.g., Most Favoured Nation, effectively applied rate).

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