BIO Web Conf.
Volume 41, 2021The 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, and Biomedical Engineering (BioMIC 2021)
|Number of page(s)||1|
|Published online||22 December 2021|
CRISPR-Cas9 as a curative drug for chronic viral infection
Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, US
2 Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
The innovation of CRISPR-Cas9 has single-handedly revolutionized biotechnology by enabling efficient and specific cutting of DNA. CRISPR-Cas9 approaches are promising not only to targetthe human genome but also DNA of pathogenic viruses, which coincidentally is the canonical function in its bacterial origin. Since 2014, a myriad of studies has proven the efficacy of CRISPR-Cas9 treatment to cleave viral DNA intermediates in vitro. One of the most widely targeted is theproviral genome of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The disease burden of HIV-1 is massive—the infection is incurable and has remained a pandemic for over four decades. Integrated HIV-1 provirus inside the human genome causes viral persistence inside latent cellular reservoirs, eluding antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sterilizing cure. Specific targeting anddisruption of HIV-1 proviral genome is necessary to achieve viral clearance, which can be achieved with CRISPR-Cas9. Here, we review the features and up to date evidence of CRISPRCas9 to target the HIV-1 proviral genome and suppress viral replication. We will also discuss potential CRISPR/Cas9 delivery methods in vivo, combination with other gene editing modalities and other therapeutic approaches, to bring gene editing-based HIV-1 cure closer into clinical use.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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