Open Access
Issue
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 17, 2020
International Scientific-Practical Conference “Agriculture and Food Security: Technology, Innovation, Markets, Human Resources” (FIES 2019)
Article Number 00238
Number of page(s) 5
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20201700238
Published online 28 February 2020

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

The search for new methods aimed at improving soil fertility, increasing productivity, obtaining high-quality grain products is an urgent problem of the modern agro-industrial complex of both the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan [13].

It is environmentally and economically feasible, when solving problems to improve the agrochemical parameters of soils, to consider the issue of recycling waste with useful properties.

Fresh chicken manure contains compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, other microelements available for plants, biologically active and organic substances, stimulating faster growth and development of plants. At the same time, its use requires preliminary treatment to remove pathogenic microflora, larvae and pupae of flies, cysts of pathogenic protozoa, eggs and helminth larvae.

One of the serious environmental problems of oil producing regions is production and technological drilling waste, which is accumulated and stored directly on the territory adjacent to the drilling site. Drill cuttings include components of natural origin, such as quartz, albite, calcite, chlorite, kalionite, mica, as well as dolomite and gypsum, which are used as soil preparations. However, drill cuttings contain oil pollution, components of technological solutions.

In this paper, we studied the prospects of using poultry waste and drilling waste to increase soil fertility, increase productivity and improve grain quality [49]. During the research, reference plots (Reference) were organized to correctly compare the results.

2 Conditions, materials and methods

Liquid chicken manure from the Yaratel poultry farm of the branch of Ak Bars Poultry Complex was used in the work. The untreated chicken manure has 3rd hazard class (Federal Classification Catalog of Wastes, code 1 12 711 01 33 3). The semi-industrial processing of the manure was carried out as follows: an experimental pile of 10 tons was formed from fresh chicken manure. The pile had width of 3 meters, length of 4 meters and height of 2 meters. The experimental pile was treated with an aqueous solution of Mefosfon every ten days for two months from September to November (using the Karcher high-pressure sprayer), while mixing the manure. The mixing of the reference and experimental piles was carried out by the Amkodor 352C universal loader. The processing of the experimental collar was carried out in accordance with the Technological regulation “Reducing the hazard class (neutralization) of livestock waste using the biologically active drug Mephosphon” [5].

The processing of drilling waste was carried out in accordance with the technological regulation “Reducing the hazard class of crude oil using the biologically active Mephosphone product and envisaged the introduction of soil and fertilizers, 4-6-fold treatment by the drug with intense mixing. The number of treatments was determined by the residual oil content in the sludge.

The products “Compost UP-1” and “Meliorant” – obtained as a result of routine works – were tested for toxicity: holotrichous ciliates Paramecium caudatum [10] and cladocerans Ceriodaphnia affinis [11] were used as test objects. The resulting product “Compost UP- 1” had 4th hazard class in terms of physico-chemical and sanitary-biological characteristics meeting the requirements of GOST R53117-2008 “Organic fertilizers based on livestock waste”. Analysis of manure samples taken on the 65th day after the start of the experiment, carried out at the Test Center of Tatarstan Interregional Veterinary Laboratory, did not reveal any representatives of pathogenic microorganisms. The bacterial indices of the group of Escherichia coli and Enterococci allowed classifying the studied samples as clean. Their sanitary, parasitological and sanitary-entomological indicators were normal [12]. During the processing of chicken manure according to the technological regulations, a decrease in the level of unpleasant odors was recorded.

The content of pollutants in the product “Meliorant” obtained from drill cuttings did not exceed the established MPC in the soil (Table 1). According to the data received as per “Approval of the Criteria for Waste Classification ...”, it belongs to the 5th hazard class [7, 8].

Field tests with Compost UP-1 were carried out on the experimental fields of Volzhskaya agricultural farm in the Laishevsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan, on medium loamy sod-podzolic soil with exchange acidity of 5.2, humus content of 2.3%, P2O5 content of 187.5 mg/kg, K2O content of 92 mg/kg.

The field experiments with drill cuttings were carried out at the experimental site of the Tatar Research Institute of Agricultural Research on gray forest loamy soil, the humus content of which was 2.9%, the availability of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen was 78.3 mg/kg (low), and labile phosphorus content was 260.0 mg/kg (very high), exchange potassium content was 130.0 mg/kg of soil (high), at pH of the soil solution of 5.8.

The drill cuttings used in the work contained inert components of natural origin (33% of quartz (SiO2), 31% albite (Na[AlSi3O8]), 13% of calcite (CaCO3), 12% of chlorite (aluminosilicate of variable composition), 8% of kalionite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), less than 1% of mica -used for deoxidizing (liming) soils, 3% of dolomite (CaCO3•MgCOs) and gypsum as a fertilizer.

In the case of Compost UP-1, application to the soil was carried out at the rate of 26 t/ha. The dose of the Meliorant product introduced into the soil was based on previous studies [9] and amounted to 1.3 t/ha, which led to an increase in the pH of the soil solution to 6.5.

When conducting field trials in the experiment with the Compost UP-1, the object of the study was the Yoldyz spring soft wheat, a variety of lutescens. The average yield in the Middle Volga region is 27.3 quintals per ha. The variety is mid-season; the vegetation period longs 78–95 days. It is moderately resistant to brown rust; the precursor is spring wheat [13]. The mass of 1000 seeds is 33–42 grams. In terms of resistance to lodging, the variety is inferior to the standard (Simbirtsit variety) up to 1 point; the drought resistance is at the standard level. Bakery quality at the level of a good filler. The plant is medium-sized. The straw is weak. The wax coating on the head and sheath of the flag leaf is medium, while it is strong on the upper internodes of the straw. The head is white and fusiform having medium density with short awnlike offshoots at the end. The shoulder is straight and raised with medium width.

In field experiments with the Meliorant, Idedelle wheat, a variety of lutescens, was used. The mass of 1000 grains is 32–39 grams. The average yield in the Middle Volga region is 24.8 q/ha. The variety is mid-season; the vegetation period longs 76–85 days. The baking qualities are good. The wheat is valuable. The variety is moderately resistant to brown rust. The predecessor is winter wheat.

During field trials, spring wheat cultivation technology generally accepted in the Republic of Tatarstan was used. The total accounting area of the experimental plot was 100 m2, the allocation of plots is consistent, the repetition is three-fold.

The test products were introduced during pre-sowing cultivation. Sowing was carried out with the SZ-3.6 seeder, with a sowing rate of 6.5 million germinating seeds per hectare (650 seeds per m2).

Plant protection measures from weeds and diseases were identical in all variants of the field experiments. The crops were treated by the ballerina herbicide (400 ml/ha) and the Kolosal .Pro fungicide (300 ml/ha) in a tank mixture, in the phase of complete tillering of spring wheat plants with the OPSh-2000 aggregate.

During the field experiments using the Compost UP-1 product, the following activities were conducted:

  1. Phenological observations according to the method of variety testing.

  2. Accounting for the number of plants twice: after emergence and before harvesting on permanent sites of 0.25 m2.

  3. Crop harvesting by direct combining with the Sampo 2010 selection combine with a header width of 1.9 m.

  4. Biometric and phytopathological observations according to the methodology of field research.

During the field tests the following were analyzed: field germination (%); stem length (cm); absolute dry mass of plants (g/m2); flag leaf area (cm2); head length (cm); the number of grains in a head (pcs); final yield (q/ha).

To assess the quality of the obtained wheat grain, the protein content was determined according to [14], the content of raw gluten and the quality of gluten (on an IDK device, according to ISO 5531-78), the natural mass of grain according to [15], its vitreousness according to [16]; the average weight of 1000 grains according to [17].

The field experiments with the Meliorant ivolved the following works:

  1. Phenological observations according to the method of variety testing.

  2. Accounting for the number of plants: after emergence and before harvesting on permanent sites of 0.25 m2.

  3. Agrochemical analysis of soil samples: before the the experiment establishment and during the growing season of spring wheat. The samples were analyzed for the content of alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen (Nr) according to Kornfield (Practice book, Moscow State University, 2001); the content of phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) forms available to plants (GOST 26207-91), pH of salt extract (GOST 26483-85).

  4. Harvesting crops by direct combine harvesting with the Sampo 2010 selection combine with a harvester width of 1.9 m;

  5. Biometric and phytopathological observations according to the methodology of field research.

Structural analysis of plants determined the length of the stem, the length of the head, the number of grains in the head, the mass of grains from the main head, the mass of plants.

The reliability of the results was determined by univariate analysis of variance by the method of the least significant difference [12].

Table 1.

The results of chemical analysis of drill cuttings

3 Results and discussion

Phenological observations carried out during field experiments showed that the substances introduced into the soil did not affect the duration of the growing season. The time of the phases of growth and development of spring wheat in the experimental variants did not differ from the reference.

Field observations of wheat growth in the control and experimental plots using Compost UP-1 and Meliorant showed that at the initial stages of growth, during the periods of formation, filling and ripening of the grain, a linear increase in phytomass was observed (Tables 1 and 2). An analysis of the state of plants at the beginning of the wax ripeness phase showed that the development of leaf diseases such as brown rust and powdery mildew did not exceed the economic threshold of harmfulness and varied between 0.08–0.20 and 1.58–2.95%, respectively, which is lower than in the control variants (0.24–0.29 and 3.17–3.33%, respectively).

It is fundamentally important to provide cereals with a sufficient amount of nutrients in the phase of the beginning of the plant shooting, because during this period the generative organs of grain crops begin to form, head nodus are formed which determine the number of spikelets in the head, the size of the head and its grain content. This period of plant development is considered critical and requires providing plants with soil moisture and nutrients.

The results of the analysis of samples taken in the phase of plant shooting showed that the use of Meliorant led to an increase in the content of alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen in the soil, but, at the same time, the supply of soil with nitrogen remained at a low level (Table 2). Provision of plants with available forms of phosphorus and potassium in all cases was at an optimal level.

The agrochemical analyzes of the soil carried out in the grain filling phase showed that the availability of plants practically did not change with respect to hydrolyzable nitrogen and available forms of phosphorus and potassium.

The introduction of tested ameliorants contributed to an increase in the content of divalent cations Ca2+and Mg2+ in the soil (the sum of the bases of the soil-absorption complex in the experimental soils was 34.8–35.3 mg-equiv./100 g against 24.3 mg-equiv./100 g in the reference), which contributes to the structuring of the soil, maintaining neutral acidity.

The ultimate goal of sowing cereal crops in the field experiments was to determine the effect of the used products on the yield of spring wheat and the quality of the obtained grain.

Comparison of the threshing results showed that the introduction of the tested products contributed to an increase in the yield of spring wheat.

The structural analysis of Idelle spring wheat showed that by the time of harvesting, the largest number of plants and productive stems were noted in the experimental plots with the Compost UP-1 product.

The analysis of grain quality carried out at the Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences showed that products obtained using the Compost UP-1 product provide higher quality grain: the vitreousness was 83% (55% for reference), crude gluten content was 20.8% (15.5% for reference), dry gluten content was 7.71% (5.79% for reference), protein mass fraction was 12.30% (9.25% for reference), including dry matter content of 12.94% (10.57% for Reference), falling-number of 358 seconds (305 seconds for Reference).

The obtained experimental data show that the use of Compost UP-1 in the cultivation of Yoldyz spring wheat provides a high yield of 42 q/ha (27 q/ha for Reference).

Comparison of the mass of the root system of plants on plots with the Meliorant product and reference plot showed that in the experimental version it was more developed and was 135–191% by weight versus the reference. The number of productive stems when using the Meliorant product was also higher than in the reference (Table. 4).

The results of grain threshing obtained on the site with Meliorant showed that it has higher technological parameters: the protein content in it was 12.2% (12.0% for Reference); the content of raw gluten was 21.6% (21.1% for Reference), the Fiber Deformation Measurement was 76 units (76 for Reference), the total vitreousness was 36% (33% for Reference) (LSD05 = 0.22).

Table 2.

Content of the main nutrients in the soil under spring wheat in the shooting phase (mg/kg)

Table 3.

Biometric indicators of spring wheat plants of the Yoldyz variety in field experiments using the Compost UP-1 product.

Table 4.

Biometric indicators of spring wheat plants of the Idelle variety in field experiments using the Meliorant product

4 Conclusion

The tests obtained during the field experiments showed:

  1. The introduction of the Compost UP-1 product into sod-podzolic medium loamy soil accelerates the process of plant development and grain ripening and co ntributes to an increase in head length: by 33% in the earing phase, by 15% in the full ripeness phase, and an increase in the number of grains in wheat heads at the stage of full ripeness by 67% compared with Reference.

  2. Grain obtained from the site using Compost UP-1 has higher characteristics of vitreousness, gluten and protein content, the falling number has higher rates.

  3. The obtained experimental data show that the introduction of the Meliorant product into the gray forest loamy soil when growing spring wheat provides an increase in soil pH and a higher quality crop.

  4. The use of Compost UP-1 and Meliorant products obtained from poultry waste and drill cuttings increases the resistance of spring wheat plants to leaf diseases such as brown rust and powdery mildew.

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All Tables

Table 1.

The results of chemical analysis of drill cuttings

Table 2.

Content of the main nutrients in the soil under spring wheat in the shooting phase (mg/kg)

Table 3.

Biometric indicators of spring wheat plants of the Yoldyz variety in field experiments using the Compost UP-1 product.

Table 4.

Biometric indicators of spring wheat plants of the Idelle variety in field experiments using the Meliorant product

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