Open Access
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 24, 2020
International Conferences “Plant Diversity: Status, Trends, Conservation Concept” 2020
Article Number 00046
Number of page(s) 4
Published online 21 September 2020

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

Species of the genus Iris L. are characterized with high decorative qualities; since the ancient times they have been introduced into flower culture and widely used in settlement greening, erven, gardens. There are a number of wild species promising for cultivation and breeding found in the natural flora. Many wild species of the genus are included in the Red Books of various regions, because they disappear under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Studying their biology, reproduction and other characteristics has not only important biological significance, but allows us to recommend the most resistant species with valuable decorative qualities to expand the range of flower-decorative plants.

2 Materials and methods

The research area is the Republic of Bashkortostan and adjacent territories in Orenburg and Chelyabinsk Regions. Field studies were carried out in 2012-2017 at 23 natural coenopopulations (CPs) of rare decorative species of the genus Iris - Iris pumila L. (11 CPs), I. scariosa Willd. ex Link (5 CPs), I. humilis Georgi (1 CP) and I. pseudacorus L. (6 CPs). All studied species are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB) [1] (2011) and 2 species (Iris pumila, I. scariosa) are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (RF) [2] (2008).

To test for introduction, Iris species planting material was mobilized by small rhizome fragments with 1-2 shoots (10-30 units each): I. pumila - in 2009 from 7 CPs of Pre-Urals, I. pseudacorus - in 1987 and 2012 from Ufa Region, I. scariosa - in 2013 from Khaibullinsky district, I. humilis - in 2014 from the Uchalinsky district (both in Trans-Urals, RB).

The introduction test was done in the South Ural Botanical Garden Institute of UFRC RAS (Ufa). The introducing conditions corresponded to a greater extent to the natural conditions for Iris pumila habitats, but significantly varied for the other three species, two of which grow in Trans-Urals, and I. pseudacorus - in quite different environmental conditions (wet meadows).

Studying morphometry in culture and natural conditions was carried out according to V.N. Golubev [3] approach in the flowering phase on 25 average-generating individuals of each CP; a counting unit was one annual shoot. The following parameters were taken into account: clone diameter (dc), cm; number of vegetative escapes (Ne), pcs.; number of generative shoots per 1 plant (Ngs), pcs.; generative shoot height (h), cm; length (Ll) and width of a generative shoot second leaf (Sl), cm; length (Llpp) and width of the lower perianth lobe (Slpp), cm; length (Lupp) and width of the upper perianth lobe (Supp), cm; flower diameter (dfl), cm.

Seed productivity was determined by a standard technique [4] (Vainagiy, 1974). The number of flowers (Nfl) and fruits (Nfr) per a generative shoot was accounted; real (RSP) and potential (PSP) seed productivity, and seed productivity coefficient (Isp, %) were estimated.

Statistical analysis was realized in MS Excel 2010 applying the statistical software package Statistica 10 [5] (Zaitsev, 1990). To compare the mean values, Student’s t-test was used (at 5% significance level) [6] (Khalafyan, 2008).

3 Results

The species morphometric indicators comparison of the Iris genus in natural habitats and introduction according to the averaged data of all CPs of each species for 4-6 years of research (Table 1) has shown that reliable differences between plants at a 5% significance level are revealed for most parameters of I. pumila and I. pseudacorus, but the differences are mostly unreliable (at tfact <2.064) for other two species.

I. scariosa, I. humilis, and I. pseudacorus habitus is worthening under culture conditions. I. pumila in culture surpasses plants in natural habitats. The differences are caused, first of all, by plant treatment in culture, higher soil moisture compared to the species natural habitats, and the lack of competition with other plant species.

Investigations of the long-term average seed productivity of Iris species (Table 2) has demonstrated that I. scariosa, I. humilis, and I. pseudacorus have average values of the most reproductive parameters under conditions of introduction significantly lower than the average values obtained in natural populations.

Assessment of I. pumila seed productivity has shown the most reproductive parameters reliably exceed similar parameters under natural then cultural conditions, that is a significant indicator of a species adaptation in culture.

I. pumila is the most promising for cultivation in the South Ural region.

Table 1

Comparison of long-term morphometric parameters of four species of the genus Iris in nature and culture

Table 2

Comparison of seed productivity elements of Iris rare species in culture and environment


  • The Red Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Vol. 1: Plants and fungi (MediaPrint, Ufa, 2011) [Google Scholar]
  • The Russian Federation Red Book (plants and fungi) (KMK, Moscow, 2008) [Google Scholar]
  • V.N. Golubev, Proceedings of V.V. Alekhin Central Black Earth Reserve, 7 (1962) [Google Scholar]
  • I.V. Vainagy, Bot. J. 59, 826-831 (1974) [Google Scholar]
  • G.N. Zaitsev, Maths in experimental botany (Nauka, Moscow, 1990) [Google Scholar]
  • A.A. Khalafyan, Statistica 6. Data statistical analysis (Binom, Moscow, 2008) [Google Scholar]

All Tables

Table 1

Comparison of long-term morphometric parameters of four species of the genus Iris in nature and culture

Table 2

Comparison of seed productivity elements of Iris rare species in culture and environment

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