Open Access
Issue
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 26, 2020
First International Scientific-Practical Conference “Actual Issues of Physical Education and Innovation in Sports” (PES 2020)
Article Number 00018
Number of page(s) 3
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20202600018
Published online 06 November 2020

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

Typical specificity of a long-term sports training happens during pubescence cycle [1]. We see heterochronicity of an athlete’s functional and somatic systems formation [2,4]. As a result of this concept of trainings, their correct content for a long-term period, the future prospective qualities determination should be realized based on individual characteristics of athletes’ morpho-functional formation [3,8,11]. Special attention in physical load planning in teen-agers during morpho-functional changes is caused by endocrine status transformation. It is necessary to pay attention to the coordinated work of cardio-respiratory system [5,6,7,8,9]. According to foreign literature, the authors [10,13] have the opinion that in young athletes training it is necessary to pay great attention to the level of physical load variation. In a modern concept of teen-age sports development many specialists [12,14,15,16,17] consider selection realization reasonable after pubertal period. In this connection there appeared the necessity to study the dynamics of sports indices in pubertal period boys (13-14 years-old), who go in for swimming. For the research work it is interesting to study unstable sports results at different distances during competitive and preparatory periods of a yearly training cycle in athletes of this age group.

2 Materials and Methods

The materials for the research were the results of training lessons in swimming among the students of Astrakhan sports school of water kinds of sport named after B.N. Skokov, Russia, who had sports qualification from the 3rd and the 1st category. During the held work we analyzed the dynamics of physical qualities development and sports results, anthropometric results, functional tests indices, start exercises fulfillment and speed turns. Statistical analysis was realized using application program package (Statistica 12.0, the USA). The validity of differences was estimated according to Student-t-criterion. The differences were considered valid in case р <0,05. Correlation analysis is realized using Pearson correlation coefficient. The research works were held on the basis of Astrakhan sports school of water kinds of sport named after B.N. Skokov, Astrakhan State Technical University and Astrakhan State Medical University in 2018-2019, Russia. All control normatives in swimming were held at shorts water.

3 Results and Discussion

According to medical check-up 2018/19 it was defined that among 32 13-14 year-old boys in the first group (n1 -9) 9 people pubertal period was characterized by high tempo of extremities and body growth – 17±2,9%, in the second group (n2 -16) 16 athletes during pubertal period had moderate increase of body and extremities length – 10,7±1,9%, in the third group (n3 -7) 7 teen-agers had slow changes of growth indices– 4,2±0,9%.

Analyzing the dynamics of effectiveness during 50 meters distance overcoming with free style it was defined that among teen-agers of (n1 -9) group there was considerable increase of straight parts overcoming; the first 25 meters 14.57±0,38s. till 13.00 ±0,11s., the 2nd 25 meters 16,20±0,24s. till 15,33±0,12 s. at the beginning of the academic year and at the end of the academic year. At 100 meters distance straight parts overcoming at the beginning of the research was the following: the 1st 25 meters 14.27±0,44s., the 2nd 25 meters 16.50±0,37s., the third part 17,49±0,44 and the final 25 meters 16.00±0,28s. According to the final protocols at the end of the academic year the indices were the following: the 1st part 14,01±0,35s. (p <0,005), the 2nd line 16,00±0,23s. (p <0,005), the 3rd part 16,32±0,39s. (p <0,005) and the final 25 meters 14,44±0,30s., (p <0,005). At the same time at speed turns we saw not stable roll fulfillment and the intensity of repulsion as a result of spatial characteristics of body position mistakes.

In (n2 -16) group there was a valid results increase at 100 meters distance, from 1: 12,35±0,24s. to 1: 10,31±0,19s. (p <0,005), at 800 meters distance from 12:30±1:09s to 11:00±0,45s. (p <0,005), at 50 and 1500 meters distances no significant changes were revealed. Among the athletes of (n3 -7) group had the most stable sports indices increase at 800 meters distance from 12:33,7±0,55,4s. to 10:45,4±0,47,2s. (p <0,005), at 1500 meters from 24:10,3±1:31,3s. to 20:05,2±1:02,5s. (p <0,005), at short and average distances this group of athletes didn’t have valid changes.

As a result of the tests for coordination - shuttle run 4х9 meters in (n1 -9) and (n2 -16) groups there were no significant changes at the end of the academic year from 8, 93± 0, 47s. to 8,70±0, 51 s., at the same time the swimmers from (n3 -7) group had considerable shuttle run results increase from 9, 29± 0,48 to 8,74±0,32 s. (p <0,005).

According to the results of analytical handling we revealed correlational connection of body mass index and control results at free style distances. On the basis of body mass index (BMI) it was defined that in the first group it was p1 = 16,2±0,35 cu and had statistically significant correlation with the results at short distances r = 0,477.; in the second group the athletes with BMI р2 = 17,9±1,4 cu, mostly correlated with the indices at the average distances r = 0,539 and had less clear interaction at short distances r = 0,315; and in the 3rd group, where body mass index was р3 = 18,3±1,4 cu , correlation was with the results at long distances r = 0,575.

If we consider the level of adaptation to physical loads according to the research results at bicycle ergometer we revealed that athletes of the accelerated type achieved submaximal HR indices in case of the load 100 W during the 10th minute of step increasing load for 25 W each 2 minutes, among (n2 -16) and (n3 -7) group athletes submaximal HR indices were defined in terms of the load 100 W during the 13th minute of testing. Physical working capacity was estimated by means of submaximal HR calculation 85 % from the calculated maximal HR. The way of maximal HR calculation: subtract the age from 220.

4 Conclusions

The held research proves that pubertal period in 13-14 year-old boys has typical peculiarities. They should be taken into consideration during educational-training lessons planning and competitive distances distribution. Functional reserves of cardio-vascular system determination would help to decrease the risk of disadaptive reactions development to physical load of competitive character, estimate effectively potentialities of athletes depending on the intensity of hormonal-gender changes. Experimentally revealed effectiveness correlation of the distances overcoming with BMI corresponds with the data and resume of the leading specialists. Nevertheless, quick morpho-functional changes of an organism during the studied period demand constant medical and pedagogical control.

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