Open Access
Issue
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 33, 2021
The 1st International Conference of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technologies for Sustainable Development (ICAVESS 2021)
Article Number 05002
Number of page(s) 4
Section Sustainable and Renewable Energy from Animal Manure
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20213305002
Published online 23 August 2021

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021

Licence Creative CommonsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

The low productivity of livestock raised in Camplong II Village, District Fatuleu, Kupang Regency is due to the inadequate knowledge and skills of the farmers on integrated livestock farming management. Some of the obstacles include unused livestock’ waste and poor animal health management. Based on this reason, in 2017, FKH Undana established a community service programin Camplong II village to assist farmers. One of the project’s purposes was to enhance local farmer knowledge and livestock management skills, such as animal health and waste management. According to Kupang’s Regent Regulation No. 4/2015, regarding village funds, priority need to give to livestock development, pasture management, and technology application in order to increase livestock production for village development plan or Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Desa (RPJM) and Village government work plan or Rencana Kerja Pemerintah (RKP). Generally, this sector is highly dependent onthe socio-condition, economy, environment, quality, and performance of their community associated with agriculture [1]. Village farmers in Camplong II, as the main actors of income sources in their families, have been dealing with uncertainty and risks as a livestock-dependent society [2]. Bali cattle have become the main commodity for this community because it provides significant income. However, the essential roles of livestock within the agricultural sector, particularly those of the poor, are not well-managed [3]. This is because although the local farmers possess adequate knowledge and skill in common livestock management practices, their knowledge in the use of organic manures from animal and green manures is limited. Therefore, one of the activities transferred to this community was making organic fertilizers from cow manure called Bokashi. This is a technique of composting organic material through a fermentation process by adding effective microorganisms (EM) that shortened the composting period [4, 5]. The common application of the org anic compound to the soil has traditionally been carried out by incorporating crop residues, compost, and organic residues [6, 7]. Therefore, the empowerment of the Camplong II village community through government programs is required to improve the farming activities, enhance farmers’ and community lives.

2 Methodology

Data were collected through observations, interviews with farmers, and simple farming methods in Camplong II Village, Fatuleu Subdistrict, and Kupang Regency from February to November 2020. Animal manure, effective microorganisms, burnt rice husk were the main compound used in the manufacture of Bokashi. Animal manure and rice husk in a ratio of 2:1 [8] with EM solution were prepared and sprayed onto the ingredients containing animal and green manure as well as organic household waste products. The output was properly mixed well until the moisture reached a range of 30-40%. This mixture was laid on a dry floor to a height of 15-20 cm, and after mixing and watering, the bokashi fertilizer was tightly covered with a tarp. After 10 days of preparations, the mixture has a sweet fermented smell and is ready to use.

thumbnail Fig. 1.

Training for local farmers in Camplong II village

3 Results and discussions

One of the activities transferred to this community was making organic fertilizers from cow manure called Bokashi, a technique carried out through the fermentation of organic material by adding effective microorganisms (EM) [6, 7]. EM is known for its lactic acid bacteria that improve soil quality to grow plants in Camplong II village comprising of dry land. Furthermore, it can be diluted and used as a spray to promote healthy fertile soil and more effective when combined with organic materials to compost bokashi. The common application of the organic compound to the soil has traditionally been carried out by incorporating crop and compost residues [6, 8]. A promising aspect of the use of Bokashi that was delivered to the community in Camplong II includes a h igh content of organic material and nutrients inside bokashi, which presents high porosity with increased waterholding capacity for low-quality soils. According to preliminary studies, having shallow topsoil on rock formation affects cultivation and the growth and production of the plant. This study utilized a mixture of recent knowledge and traditional methods, such as natural fertilizer and Bokashi from faces, which are cheaper and attractive to local farmers and valuable to their community [3]. Therefore, applying bokashi to the soil increases the organic material by providing nutrients and reducing leaching [10, 11]. Some of the small-scale agricultural products manufactured by using this bokashi were eggplant, tomatoes, and peanuts. Studies have shown that men are not the main actors supporting the family’s income as women also participate in growing some plants in their back yard. According to [11], bokashi from animal manure contributed to higher results of tomato production compare to inorganic fertilizers [12]. Therefore, bokashi is one of the good alternatives in improving the fertility of lowquality soil. Bokashi contains living microorganisms that, when applied to soil, support the growth of plants by supplying essential nutrients. Therefore, it is essential to minimize chemical pesticides and support microorganism’s activity that can restore soil condition in Camplong II village.

Furthermore, this study shows that the recommendation to improve farm-based knowledge through socialization and women empowerment proves that Camplong II village is highly motivated to determine effective methods and its challenges. This knowledge gap and practical guidance are going to assist farmers on what to use for a sustainable outcome. The most critical suggestion is to identify better methods for local farmers because some implementers quickly adapt to the training sessions and apply themin their small farms. In contrast, others faced both externaly and internaly challenges, such as low motivation and capability. Furthermore, the ability of farmers to respond to the impacts of these challenging factors can be traced through the procedure needed to solve the problem. For instance, some trained farmers prefer the use of chemical fertilizers to organic bokashi. Therefore, the capability of the farmers needs to be practical and applicable to determine the economic prospects of low-income households. According to [13, 14, 15], there is a significant correlation between small farming conditions and village farmers’ income. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen their capacity in managing local resources through social and recent appropriate technology capable of developing this local community.

thumbnail Fig. 2.

Bokashi composting in Camplong II Village

thumbnail Fig. 3.

Its application on small-scale agriculture in Camplong II Village

4 Conclusions

In conclusion, the inclusion and implementation of small farming techniques in Camplong II village led to beneficial results. Although these changes may not appear significant to some people, these small steps were a giant leap towards villagers’ empowerment in Camplong II village, Kupang Regency, NTT, Indonesia.

Acknowledgment

5

This report is a part of a community engagement project funded by DRPM, Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, BRIN Scheme 2020 entitled "PPDM Desa Sentra Tani Ternak Lahan Kering Kepulauan.” Therefore, the authors are grateful to the LP2M Universitas Nusa Cendana and Camplong II Village community for their contribution during this research.

References

  • L. C. Cullen, J. Pretty, D. Smith, and S. E. Pilgrim, 2007, The Int. J. of Interdiscip. Soc. Sci, 2, 1 (2007) [Google Scholar]
  • C.D. Gaina, F. U. Datta, M. U. Sanam, F. A. Amalo, I. Benu, & Laut M.M, Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Peternakan 5, 1 (2020) [Google Scholar]
  • C. D. Gaina, Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Peternakan 4, 1 (2019) [Google Scholar]
  • M. Quiroz and C. Céspedes, J. of Soil Sci and Plant Nutr. 19, 1 (2019) [Google Scholar]
  • N. Ndaong, N. Foeh, G. Maranatha and F.U. Datta, Int J of Comm Service Learning 4, 4 (2020) [Google Scholar]
  • W. Gong, X. Yan, J. Wang, T. Hu, Y. Gong, Geoderma 14, 9 (2009) [Google Scholar]
  • R. N. M. Shahardeen and, T. H. Seran, Bangladesh J of Sci and Industrial Research, 48, 1 (2013) [Google Scholar]
  • M.A. Zucco, S.A. Walters, S.K. Chong, B.P. Klubek, J. Masabni, Int. J. Recycle Org. Waste Agric 4 (2015) [Google Scholar]
  • T. Kyan, M. Shintani, S. Kanda, In: Sangakkara R (ed), Kyusei nature farming and the technology of effective microorganisms, guidelines for practical use. APNAN (Asia Pacific natural agriculture network, Bangkok, Thailand) and INFRC (international nature farming research center) (Atami, Japan, 1999) [Google Scholar]
  • B. Murillo-Amador, L.E. Morales-Prado, E. Troyo-Diéguez, M.V. Córdoba Matson, L.G. Hernández-Montiel, E.O. Rueda-Puente, A. Nieto Garibay, Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L. Front Plant Sci. 6 (2015) [Google Scholar]
  • L. Karimuna, N. M. Rahni, and D. Boer, J. of Trop. Crop Sci. 3, 1 (2016) [Google Scholar]
  • V. Darwis, and I.W. Rusastra, Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian. 9, 2 (2011) [Google Scholar]
  • R.M. Dlamini, Investigation of sustainable indigenous agricultural practices: a systems approach (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch University, 2007) [Google Scholar]
  • A. Fariyanti, Kuntjoro, S. Hartoyo, & A. Daryanto, Jurnal Agro Ekonomi 25, 2 (2007) [Google Scholar]
  • D. H. Pangaribuan, M. Yasir, & N. K. Utami, J. Agronomi Indonesia, 40, 3 (2012) [Google Scholar]

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 1.

Training for local farmers in Camplong II village

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 2.

Bokashi composting in Camplong II Village

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 3.

Its application on small-scale agriculture in Camplong II Village

In the text

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.