BIO Web Conf.
Volume 12, 201941st World Congress of Vine and Wine
|Number of page(s)||4|
|Published online||19 February 2019|
Effect of the extent of ethanol removal on the volatile compounds of a Chardonnay wine dealcoholized by vacuum distillation
1 Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Viticoltura ed Enologia, Via Pietro Micca, 35, 14100 Asti, Italy
2 CAVIRO DISTILLERIE via Convertite, 48018 Faenza, Italy
3 CAVIRO sca via Convertite, 48018 Faenza, Italy
“Beverages obtained from the partial dealcoholization of wine” are those drinks whose final alcoholic degree after dealcoholization is lower than that of a wine and higher than or equal to 0.5% v/v. When the total alcoholic degree is lower than 0.5% v/v the denomination is “Beverages obtained from the dealcoholization of wine”.
The practices to be authorized for the production of these drinks with the dealcoholized wine fractions are currently being studied at OIV. The characterization of the composition of these fractions is essential to identify the necessary corrective practices.
The present work was aimed at monitoring the losses of the main volatile compounds of a Chardonnay wine with the proceeding of the dealcoholization process by vacuum distillation. The wine was subjected to total dealcoholization, and during the process the evaporated fractions, re-condensed at 9 ∘C, were collected in aliquots of 1.25 L each. The ethanol content of each fraction was measured, and for the first 20 fractions the content in volatile compounds was determined with GC-MS.
The results show that the losses of volatile compounds during the dealcoholization process follow different trends depending on the molecules considered. The most volatile compounds, generally with the lowest perception thresholds, were mainly present in the first evaporated fractions. The greatest losses concerned isoamylacetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate.
Conversely, a greater number of molecules were present at similar concentrations in the different fractions, and their losses followed a linear or sometimes exponential trend: in particular, these compounds included n-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol, diethyl succinate and medium chain fatty acids (hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids).
In the wine dealcoholized at 3.36% v/v (loss of ethanol equal to 7.43% v/v, corresponding to the 20th and last recondensed fraction), some volatile compounds were no longer detectable or quantifiable; in particular, these compounds were isoamylacetate, ethylhexanoate, hexylacetate, n-hexanol and other alcohols with 6 carbon atoms and ethyl octanoate.
Other compounds, such as hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids, and, in particolar, β-phenylethanol, benzylic aalcohol and γ-butyrolactone, underwent lower percentage losses than those of ethanol. The dealcoholization process can therefore deeply modify the original aromatic profile of the wines, intervening on the absolute concentration and on the relative ratios of the single molecules.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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