Open Access
Issue
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 16, 2019
“Results and Prospects of Geobotanical Research in Siberia”, dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the laboratory of ecology and geobotany of CSBG SB RAS
Article Number 00030
Number of page(s) 5
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20191600030
Published online 15 October 2019

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

The north of Western Siberia resembles the arena of continuous “struggle” between forests and marshes [2]. At present, as a result of the activities of the oil and gas complex, dry- bottom habitats of sand and peat have been created on the site of a significant part of the former wetlands [1]. Gradually, they turn into "man-made" forests. But without human assistance, this process can take several decades [3].

The study of the dynamics of vegetation appearance in the technogenic landscapes of the oil complex shows that, at the initial stage of the forest formation process, the “pioneer” species of genera Salix, Populus and Betula play an active role. They create a forest environment and contribute to the settlement of other species, including conifers.

With this in mind, the forest reclamation technology, which “launches” the mechanism of the initial stage of forest formation by creating cultures from local willow species [4], has been developed. To study the reaction of these species to peat-sand substrates contaminated with drilling wastes, a test site for forest reclamation was created about 20 years ago [5].

The studies carried out in 1–5 years after plantations allowed for the selection of reclamation- and recultivation-promising willow species and soil compositions, respectively. However, the issue of the extent to which artificial plantations and sand reclamations contribute to the process of natural overgrowing of this experimental area have not yet been studied.

The purpose of this work is to assess the productivity and species diversity of the phytocenosis, which was formed at the experimental site after its recultivation.

2 Materials and Methods

The experimental forest reclamation site with the total area of 684 m2 was created on the unexploited sandy part of the well drilling site in the Tyansk (now Muryaunsky) oil field of OJSC “Surgutneftegaz” located on the territory of ridge-bog complex in the middle taiga zone (62° 4618.36" n. lt. 72° 09’48.69" e. lng.) during1997-1998. The methodical features of the experiment are described in the monograph [1].

Experimental plots with the total area of 261 m2 included 61 box sections, each with the area of 1 m2 and depth of 0.3 m, as well as 4 micro-grounds, each with the area of 50 m2 and depth of 0.5 m (Fig. 1). They were intended to study the dose-effect relation in a wide range of ratios of drilling waste, peat and sand, and the concentration of each of which varied from 0 to 80-100 %, also for testing various species that are a priori promising for forest reclamation. At the same time, most of the grounds were planted by Salix triandra L., S. dasyclados Wimm., S. viminalis L., S. pentandra L. and S. bebbiana Sarg. Also, wild species of Betula pendula Roth., Ehrh ., Sorbus sibirica L., seedlings of Larix sibirica Ledeb. and hybrid forms of the poplar breeding of CSBG SB RAS [6] were planted in small numbers. In addition, Pinus sylvestris L., Larix sibirica Ledeb. and Hippophae rhamnoídes L. seeds were sown in plots of 1-2 m2.

At the end of August, 2016, in the experimental plots and on the land free from plantations, the list and abundance of plant species and tree-stand taxation parameters were estimated using generally accepted geobotanical and silvicultural methods.

thumbnail Fig. 1

The layout of the plots within the recultivated site. Plots № 1-30 −box sections (each of 1 m2) with substrates of sand and drilling waste; No. 31-40 − box sections of 1 m2 with substrates of sand and peat, to which the drilling waste was added in 2004 and which were temporarily used for growing vegetables; No. 41-61 − box sections of 1 m2 with substrates of sand, peat and drilling waste; No. 62 − section of 50 m2 with a sand substrate; No. 63 − section of 50 m2 with a substrate of sand and drilling waste; No. 64 − section of 50 m2 with a peat substrate; No. 65 − section of 50 m2 with a substrate of sand and peat.

3 Results and discussion

In order to create artificial phytocenoses, 12 woody plant species, with over 90 % of the plots occupied by 5 willow species, were involved. Forty-four plant species, unevenly distributed among the experimental variants (Tables 1, 2), were found in the recultivated area in twenty years after the planting.

Of these, 5 tree species and 5 willow species were preserved from the original plantation. But if birches and pines increased their share of participation in the phytocenosis due to the growth of saplings and the emergence of self-sowing, the aging willow cultures are at an older age, and their participation in the phytocenoses decreased to 0-38 %, being 15% on the average (Table 3). The number of species increased, in comparison with the plantation, by 34. This was mainly due to the species of herbaceous plants, mosses and shrubs (Table 2).

If we compare different experimental variants with each other, as well as experimental plots with areas free from plantations, we can note the following. The largest number of plant species is in the range of 29-36 pcs., and the largest participation of woody plants with a total projective cover of 37-42 % is characteristic for variants with a complex composition of substrates which include sand, peat and drilling waste (see Table 23). At the same time, the variant of temporary use of plots for growing vegetables (sections 31–40) also differs by the maximum number of herbaceous plant species, which could be caused by their additional reclamation (due to the introduction of additional biomass into the soil and its loosening). On the average, the smallest projective cover of 0-28 % vegetation is observed on the sandy ground (landfill) No. 62 and in the sandy areas free from experimental plantations.

The integral taxation-botanical characteristics of groups of variants suggests that the amelioration of poor sandy substrates with peats and drilling waste, in combination with woody plantations, first of all willow species, leads to the accelerated formation of closed birch-willow stands with an admixture of conifers (Table 4) . Favorable conditions for the formation of tree phytocenoses are also created in the interplot space, where the undergrowth thickness 38 thousand pcs/ha. At the same time, at a distance from the recultivated area, the sandy pad areas are practically not overgrown.

Table 1

List of plant species found in 2016 within the recultivated area

Table 2

Number of plant species (psc.) in different recultivated plot variants

Table 3

Total projective cover by plants (%) in different recultivated plot variants

Table 4

Taxation-botanical characteristics of plantations (phytocenoses) in the recultivated area (RA)

4 Conclusions

Creating cultures of willows and other woody plant species from “pioneer” ones, also the “mosaic” melioration of sands, accelerate the process of oil well drilling sites natural overgrowth in Surgut Woodland. In the future, close species-rich birch-willow stands with an admixture of conifers may form in such areas.

References

  • M.I. Neyshtadt, Scientific prerequisites of developing swamps of West Siberia (M, Nauka, 1977) [Google Scholar]
  • V.N. Sedykh, V.V. Tarakanov. Woody plant tolerance to drilling wastes (Ed. Miljutin, 2004) [Google Scholar]
  • M.N. Gasheva, A.V. Soromotin, S.N. Gashev, Ecology, 2 (1990) [Google Scholar]
  • Yu.N. Ilichev, V.V. Tarakanov, I.A. Galkin. Forestry, 5 (2002) [Google Scholar]
  • V.N. Sedykh, V.V. Tarakanov, V.T. Bakulin. Forest science, 3 (2003) [Google Scholar]
  • V.T. Bakulin. The introduction and breeding of poplar in Siberia (Novosibirsk, 1990) [Google Scholar]

All Tables

Table 1

List of plant species found in 2016 within the recultivated area

Table 2

Number of plant species (psc.) in different recultivated plot variants

Table 3

Total projective cover by plants (%) in different recultivated plot variants

Table 4

Taxation-botanical characteristics of plantations (phytocenoses) in the recultivated area (RA)

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 1

The layout of the plots within the recultivated site. Plots № 1-30 −box sections (each of 1 m2) with substrates of sand and drilling waste; No. 31-40 − box sections of 1 m2 with substrates of sand and peat, to which the drilling waste was added in 2004 and which were temporarily used for growing vegetables; No. 41-61 − box sections of 1 m2 with substrates of sand, peat and drilling waste; No. 62 − section of 50 m2 with a sand substrate; No. 63 − section of 50 m2 with a substrate of sand and drilling waste; No. 64 − section of 50 m2 with a peat substrate; No. 65 − section of 50 m2 with a substrate of sand and peat.

In the text

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.