Issue 
BIO Web Conf.
Volume 17, 2020
International ScientificPractical Conference “Agriculture and Food Security: Technology, Innovation, Markets, Human Resources” (FIES 2019)



Article Number  00058  
Number of page(s)  4  
DOI  https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20201700058  
Published online  28 February 2020 
Research of transportation of hardrunning seeds with a torsionpin sowing machine
Samara State Agrarian University, 446442 Kinel, Samara region, Russia
^{*} Corresponding author: kotov_d@bk.ru
The article describes patterns of transportation of hardrunning seeds by working bodies of the torsionpin sowing machine. An analytical expression for determining the volumetric supply of hardrunning seeds by working bodies of the torsionpin sowing unit at the stage of their transportation is substantiated. Graphical dependences of the volumetric feed on the number and height of vertical pins are provided.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1 Introduction
Various soil and climatic conditions have a significant impact on the productivity and successful seed production of legumes. Moreover, they are not always favorable for their highly productive cultivation, since for germination of legume seeds, an increased amount of moisture is required [1, 2].
Therefore, for regions with insufficient moisture in the spring, including Samara region, in order to increase field germination and have high yields, a technology for sowing legumes with soaked seeds was developed [3].
However, in soaking, legume seeds become cohesive, hardrunning.
The problem of sowing hardrunning sowing materials cannot be solved using existing sowing machines [4–8], since when dosing seeds that have undergone soaking treatment, arches above the hopper outlet [9, 10], as well as sticking of seeds to the working bodies of the dosing device may occur [11].
2 Materials and methods
To solve the problem of sowing hardrunning seeds that have undergone presowing treatment by soaking, a torsionpin sowing machine was designed. Its technological process (Fig. 1) is as follows.
During the expiration from the hopper, the seeds fill the space between torsionpin groups 6 mounted on drive shaft 1 and consisting of a horizontal pin, a torsion spring and vertical pins 7. When drive shaft 1 is rotated, the seeds move torsionpin group 6 to upper segment (peak) 3.
Vertical pins 7, abutting against visor 3, deflect under the action of the spring, and the compacted mass of seeds moves to sowing slit 5, falling into the funnel of the seed drop tube.
The destruction of the arches that impede the movement of hardrunning seeds through the outlet window of the hopper is carried out due to the impact of vertical pins 7, when seeds are returned to their upper position by a torsion spring.
The size and stability of the feed is determined by the transporting ability or the ability to move the increased volume of seeds by torsionpin groups 6 with vertical pins 7, at the stage of their transportation to upper segment (peak) 3.
Proceeding from the technological process of transportation of hardrunning seeds by the working bodies of the torsionpin sowing machine, the torsionpin group forms a movable seed volume, consisting of the seed volume moved by horizontal pin 1 and the seed volume moved by vertical pins 2 (Fig. 2).
The volumetric supply of seeds Q (m^{3}/s) by a torsionpin group with vertical pins can be determined by the following expression:(1)
where Q_{1} is the volumetric feed of seeds formed by the horizontal pin of the torsionpin group, m^{3}/s; Q_{2} volumetric feed formed by vertical pins, m^{3}/s; k – the number of torsionpin groups, pcs .; V_{1} – the volume of seeds formed by one horizontal pin, m^{3}; V_{2} is the volume of seeds formed by one vertical pin, m^{3}; – the number of vertical pins, pcs .; ω the angular velocity of rotation of the shaft of the metering unit, s^{−1}.
The seed volume V_{1} formed by one horizontal pin of the torsionpin group during rotational movement is a volumetric figure with an OABC section (Fig. 2) with an angle at the base ψ equal to the dynamic angle of internal friction of the seed material.
The volume V_{1} formed by one horizontal pin is determined by the expression(2)
where μ is the empirical coefficient that takes into account features of transportation of hardrunning seeds; h_{1} – the height of the torsionpin group, m; δ – the diameter of the horizontal pin of the torsionpin group, m; D – the outer diameter of the sector of seed collection, m; d – the inner diameter of the sector of the seed collection, m
The additional volume of seeds transported by one vertical pin is formed in the form of figure F (DCDEF), part of which is cut off by upper sector 3 (Fig. 2).
To calculate volume V2, let us single out a small element with height dh. The volume of the element is determined by formula:(3)
where dh is the height of the selected element, m; dS is the area of the selected element, m^{2}; α is the angle of a dynamic slope formed during the expiration of the seed between the vertical pins, degrees.
After integrating expression (3), volume V2 formed by one pin is determined by equation:(4)
where Δh = (h_{1} +δ+ h_{2})  h is the height of the figure Φ (DCDEF), cut off by the upper sector (visor), m; h_{3} the height of the upper sector (peak), m.
The volumetric seed supply Q formed by the torsionpin groups, taking into account expression (1), can be written as:(5)
As can be seen from expression (5), volumetric supply Q depends on structural and technological parameters and physicomechanical properties of seeds.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the technological process of the torsionpin sowing machine: 1 – drive shaft, 2 – metering body, 3 – upper segment (visor), 5 – metering slot, 6 – torsionpin group (TPG) with vertical pins 7, 8 – seed tube, 9 – seeds. 
Fig. 2. Scheme for determining the volume of a figure formed by one horizontal pin (on the right) and a vertical pin, torsionpin group (on the left). 
Fig. 3. Theoretical Q_{teor} and experimental Q_{exp} dependences of the volumetric feed on the number of vertical pins n and the height of the vertical pins h_{2}. 
3 Results
Let us substitute structural and technological parameters of the torsionpin sowing machine in expression (5): the number of torsionpin groups k = 4; the number of pins n = 2, 3, 4; the height of the torsionpin groups h_{1} = 9 mm; the height of the vertical pins h_{2} = 5, 10, 15, 20 mm; the diameter of the horizontal pin d = 8 mm; the height of the upper sector (visor) h_{3} = 18 mm; the external diameter of the sowing machine D = 132 mm; the outer diameter of the sleeve d = 64 mm; the angular velocity of the shaft m = 1,57 s^{1}.
We used soaked seeds of white annual melilot, whose physical and mechanical properties changed and amounted to: the coefficient of internal friction f = 0.8; flow coefficient y = 0.5; caving angle a = 55 °.
In accordance with the physical and mechanical properties of the soaked seeds of white annual melilot, the empirical coefficient was determined taking into account peculiarities of transportation of hardrunning seeds. It is = 1.31.
The calculation results are presented in the form of graphical dependences of volumetric feed Qteor on the quantity n and the height of the vertical pins h_{2}.
To compare the convergence of the theoretical data, the graphical dependences Qexp are plotted based on the results of experimental studies (Fig. 3).
From the analysis of graphical dependences, there is a high convergence of the results of theoretical and experimental research data when 4 vertical pins are installed at their height up to h_{2} = 15 mm, estimated by a correlation coefficient of 98%.
When installing two vertical pins, a high convergence of the results up to h_{2} = 10 mm is observed; it is estimated by a correlation coefficient of 95%.
With an increase in the height of the vertical pins, the convergence of the results of theoretical calculations with the data of experimental studies decreases due to the fact that when the height of the vertical pin h_{2} = 20 mm and higher, the sowing process is implemented with nonoptimal quality parameters.
Therefore, to optimize the design parameters of the torsionpin sowing device, it is necessary to increase the height of the vertical pins up to h_{2} = 20 mm.
4 Conclusion
The analytical expression (5) allows us to determine the volumetric supply of hardrunning seeds by torsionpin groups at the stage of their transportation by a torsionpin sowing machine. In this case, the volumetric feed depends on the structural and technological parameters of the torsionpin sowing machine and the physical and mechanical properties of the seeds. The adequacy of the mathematical model is confirmed by the data of experimental studies.
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All Figures
Fig. 1. Diagram of the technological process of the torsionpin sowing machine: 1 – drive shaft, 2 – metering body, 3 – upper segment (visor), 5 – metering slot, 6 – torsionpin group (TPG) with vertical pins 7, 8 – seed tube, 9 – seeds. 

In the text 
Fig. 2. Scheme for determining the volume of a figure formed by one horizontal pin (on the right) and a vertical pin, torsionpin group (on the left). 

In the text 
Fig. 3. Theoretical Q_{teor} and experimental Q_{exp} dependences of the volumetric feed on the number of vertical pins n and the height of the vertical pins h_{2}. 

In the text 
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