BIO Web Conf.
Volume 26, 2020First International Scientific-Practical Conference “Actual Issues of Physical Education and Innovation in Sports” (PES 2020)
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||06 November 2020|
Analysis of mass sports development in Russia and Europe
Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, 190121, St. Petersburg, Russia
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this article, the authors consider the development of mass sports in Russia and Europe, study such indicators of the development of physical culture as the number of systematically engaged in physical activity, the age of the people engaged in sports, preferred places for physical training, as well as the level of satisfaction with the conditions for physical activity in the community. The authors also give examples of projects for the development of physical activity in Russia and Europe.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nowadays, mass sport is an essential component of the modern society’s life. Sports development issues for all categories of the citizens are considered at the state level both in Russia and in Europe. Currently, there is a growing trend in the number of people who are systematically involved in sports. Thanks to an effective policy in the field of sports, not only the traditionally physically active category of children and teenagers, but also middle-aged and older people are able to get used to systematic sports.
Confirmation of interest in sports among the people can be the fact that even in modern conditions, when there are significant restrictions on physical activity all over the world, people still continue to practice independently at home.
Of course, systematic physical activity helps to improve the health of the population, which, subsequently, leads to the improvement of the nation as a whole. The issues of increasing physical activity are considered by a number of international organizations. So, in particular, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that every fourth adult in the world is not enough physically active. The consequence of low physical activity is the cardiovascular system diseases development, diabetes and oncology. The World Health Organization defines physical activity as “any kind of body movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure, including activity during work, games, homework, travel and recreational activities” .
Currently, a number of measures are being implemented in the Russian Federation aimed at developing sports and attracting the population to systematic sports. So, in particular, the federal project “Sport is the norm of life”, which is part of the Demography national project, is of interest. The executor of this project is the Ministry of Sports of Russia. Within the framework of this project, many mass sporting events are being implemented, such as, “Russian ski track”, “Orange Ball”, “Cross Nation” and others. These events gather a huge number of participants from professional athletes to sports enthusiasts.
Speaking about European countries, the Erasmus + program can be noted. This program is aimed at supporting cooperation in physical activity, vocational training and sports.34 countries participate in the program, including 28 countries of the European Union, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Northern Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey. The program includes sporting events at various levels. On average, about 199 sports projects are implemented annually, including about 118 in the field of amateur sports. The program sponsors the European Sports Week. It includes more than 50,000 sporting events throughout Europe, as well as an event in Tartu calling for a healthy lifestyle and promoting social inclusion through sports - “Tartu Call for a healthy lifestyle”.
Thus, sport is an integral part of the lives of billions of people around the world. Thanks to the support of sports, a close-knit community is being created, and social integration is increasing. Sport is one of the key aspects of a country’s economies. This sector employs millions of citizens around the world. The revenue generated by the development of sports, both directly and indirectly, is estimated in billions.
The analysis was based on statistics and opinion polls. In particular, in order to analyze the development of mass sports in European countries, the authors studied the opinion polls of the Eurobarometre for 2009, 2013, 2017. The survey is conducted every 5 years in 28 countries of Europe. This survey is conducted by TNS. In 2017, 28,031 people took part in the survey. In addition, the authors analyzed the report on sports in the framework of the Erasmus + program.
To analyze the development of mass sports in Russia, authors studied the data of the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM) and the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Federal Science Center for Physical Culture and Sports” (FSBI FSC VNIIFK) in the framework of the Federal project “Sport is the norm of life.” This survey was conducted in the fall of 2019, and 7800 people took part in it. In addition, the data of VCIOM’s reports for 2018 were analyzed. Also, the statistical information presented on the official website of the Ministry of Sports of Russia was used for a more complete analysis.
One of the most important indicators characterizing the sphere of physical physical and sports is the number of people who systematically engage in sports. According to the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation, in 2019 14,097,420 people aged from 3 to 79 years old are engaged in sports in Russia, including 7,017,260 men and 7,080,160 women . The most active category among men is people aged 3 to 29 years old, women from 30 to 54 years old. In the report of the Ministry of Sports of Russia on the implementation of the Strategy for the Development of Physical activity and sports in the Russian Federation for the period until 2020, the share of citizens systematically involved in sports is 39.8% .
In August-September 2019, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM) and the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Federal Science Center for Physical Culture and Sports” (FSBI FSC VNIIFK) conducted a sociological survey related to issues of sports as part of the Federal project “Sport is the norm of life” implementation. 7800 people took part in the survey, including from 13 to 29 years old - 2200 respondents, from 30 to 59 years old - 3200 respondents and over 60 years old - 2400 respondents. According to the survey, 63% of respondents are engaged in physical activity and sports. The most numerous category of regularly engaged in physical activity and sports are people from 6 to 12 years old (67%), followed by the age category from 3 to 5 years (51%) and from 13 to 29 years (41%). At the same time, 46% of people aged 60 and over and 45% of respondents 30 to 59 do not engage in physical activity at all. So, people of middle and older age are least involved in sports. In total, 38% of respondents regularly engage in sports, 23% of respondents engage in sports from time to time, 2% are engaged in compulsory classes in educational institutions .
According to a survey conducted by VCIOM on monitoring a healthy lifestyle, we can see the dynamics of the population involvement in physical activity and sports indicator. The data reflecting the dynamics of population involvement in physical activity and sports from 2006 to 2018 years (Fig. 1).
The conclusion is that since 2006 the number of people who do not engage in sports has almost halved, from 55% in 2006 to 20% in 2018. The number of people regularly involved in physical activity and sports since 2006 has also increased very significantly. In 2006, this indicator was equal to 9%, in 2018 it increased to 25%, and in 2019 it is 38%.
According to the indicators of European countries obtained as a result of the Eurobarometre survey, in 2017 46% of respondents do not go in for sports, and 14% of respondents rarely go in for sports. In general, only 7% of respondents regularly engage sport. The data reflect the dynamics of engage in sportspopulation of European countries from 2009 to 2017 according to the Eurobarometer reports (Fig. 2).
Analyzing the reports of 2009 and 2013, we can say that the number of people not involved in physical activity increased by 4% compared to 2013 and by 7% compared to 2009. So, in 2013, 42% of respondents did not engage in sports, and in 2009 39%. At the same time, from time to time 54% of respondents are involved in physical activity. This indicator decreased by 4% compared to 2013 and by 7% compared to 2009 [6,7,8]. The most active age categories among those regularly engaged in sports are people aged from15 to 24 years (12%) and from 40 to 54 years (7%). In general, 40% of men and 52% of women are not involved in physical activity. In the age group from 15 to 24 years old, 62% of the respondents are engaged in physical activity, from 25 to 39 years old 46%, from 40 to 54 years old 39%, and in the age category over 55 years old only 30% .
The least active among the number of people involved in sports are countries such as Bulgaria, Greece and Portugal. In these countries, the number of people who are not involved in physical activity is more than 65%. Recognized leaders in involving the population in the field of physical activity are Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The rates for the number of regularly engaged in sports in these countries are very high. In Finland, this indicator is 69%, in Sweden - 67%, in Denmark - 63% .
Another interesting indicator that is important for assessing the development of physical activity and sports is the analysis of the places for physical activity. To analyze this indicator for Russia, we analyzed the data obtained as a result of VCIOM survey on the development of mass sports conducted in 2018. The information on this indicator presented on Fig. 3. .
We see that the majority of respondents - 51%, prefer to do sports on their own at home, and 46% of respondents said that they prefer to do sports on their own at the stadium, on the sports ground, in the gym or pool.
According to Eurobarometre, the majority of Europeans participating in the survey also prefer to do sports on their own, for example, in parks and outdoors (40% of respondents) and at home (32%) . Fig. 4 presents data on preferred places of sports among Europeans according to reports from 2009 to 2017 [6,7,8].
Thus, the most popular place for doing sport in European countries is the park. This option was chosen by most respondents in 17 countries at once. This option of classes is most in demand in Finland, as 67% of respondents answered. In addition, this option was chosen by more than half of the respondents in Austria (54%), Spain (53%), Sweden (52%), Slovenia and Estonia (51%). At home, they prefer to do sports in countries such as Slovakia (62%), Romania (60%), Hungary, Lithuania (59%) and Latvia (54%).At work, they prefer to engage in physical activity in Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania (26%).
Speaking about places for physical activity, we cannot ignore such an indicator as satisfaction with the conditions for doing sports. According to the VCIOM survey, 66% of respondents are satisfied with the conditions for physical activity. The highest level of satisfaction is demonstrated by the age category from 13 to 29 years old - 79%, then the age category from 30 to 59 years old - 65% and from 60 years and older - 62% .
An important indicator of the physical activity development is the provision of sports facilities in the community. Figure 5 presents VCIOM data on the adequacy of sports facilities at the place of residence in cities with different numbers of populations and in villages .
Analyzing the data in Fig. 5, we can say that the maximum satisfaction with the number of sports facilities is observed in cities of federal significance - Moscow and St. Petersburg - 55%. The least satisfied with the number of sports facilities in urban villages and in villages are 55% and 56%, respectively.
We see fairly stable indicators for the level of satisfaction with conditions for physical training - more than 70%. The highest level of satisfaction is shown by people aged from 15 to 24 years old (78%), followed by the age category from 25 to 39 years old (77%). People aged 55 years and older are the least satisfied with the conditions for physical training. However, even here the indicator is at the level of 70%. It is quite high.
Today, both in Russia and in Europe, a large number of projects are being implemented aimed at developing physical activity and sports and integrating as many people as possible into this sphere.
So, in the report of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (DG EAC) includes key areas and projects implemented in the field of sports in recent years. As part of the Erasmus + project, many significant projects have been implemented aimed at promoting social and refugee integration, preventing extremism, and promoting European values at all levels. In total, from 2016 to 2019, 107 projects were supported with a total budget of 12.5 million euros. Note the fact that most projects are designed not only for residents of European countries, but also for interaction with African countries and Asian countries. Here are some examples of physical education projects implemented in 2019. The first project to pay attention to is the SMILE project. Within the framework of this project, a training module is being developed using a digital platform for teaching and learning. The project is being implemented in more than 90,000 sports clubs in Germany and aims to integrate migrants and refugees into the sphere of physical activity and sports.Another project aimed at integrating refugees and migrants is the THROW-In project.The essence of the project is to integrate refugees living in Verona by including them in local football clubs as assistant coaches. The second significant area is the prevention of extremist and radical behavior. An example of a project in this direction is, for example, the STAR project. The essence of the project is to prevent extremist behavior through the popularization of sports among young people, sports events and trainings. Another area is the exchange of experience in the field of physical activity and sports. For example, a project is being implemented aimed at cooperation between coaches from Europe and Asia. The aim of this project is to strengthen the ties between the volleyball communities of both continents, providing a platform for collaboration and knowledge sharing [10,12].
Since 2019, Russia has been implementing the federal project “Sport is the norm of life”. The project is conducting systematic work to maximize the involvement of the population in the field of physical education and sports. In particular, such sporting events as “Athlete’s Day”, “Orange Ball”, “Spartakiad”, “Cross Nation”, “Decade of Sports and Health” and “Russian ski track” and many other events aimed at the participation of people of different ages and different level of training. According to the results of the project, it is planned to achieve by 2024 an indicator for the number of systematically engaged in physical activity and sports of 55%, that is, to increase indicators by more than 14%. In addition, it is planned to build new sports facilities. 396 sporting events are planned, including 22 events for people with disabilities, 226 events for children and students, and 148 events for people of middle and older age groups .
Dynamics of population involvement in physical activity and sports from 2006 to 2018 (%)
The dynamics of the sport engage regularity in European countries from 2009 to 2017 (%)
Places for physical activity in Russia (%)
Preferred places for doing sports in Europe (%)
Estimation of the number of sports facilities (%)
Level of satisfaction with the conditions for physical exercises in Europe (%)
It can be concluded that, in general, the development of mass sports both in Russia and in Europe is quite active. Today we see fairly high rates in the number of systematically engaged in physical activity. In Russia today, 39.8% of the population are systematically involved in physical activity and sports. According to Eurobarometre,the average level of constantly engaged in physical activity in Europe is about 40%, another 14% of the population is engaged in sports from time to time. However, 46% do not engage in physical activity at all and this indicator is increasing compared to the reported data of 2009 and 2013.
According to the analysis of the physical culture development in Russia and Europe, we noted the fact that most people prefer to engage in physical activity on their own at home or in the fresh air, without resorting to the help of professional trainers and instructors.
Both in Russia and in Europe, respondents demonstrate satisfaction with the conditions provided to them for physical activity. At the same time, a fairly large number of respondents in Russia, according to VCIOM, think that the number of sports facilities in the community is not enough. In Russia as a whole, this indicator is 50%. But 42% of respondents think that there are enough sports facilities and 8% of respondents found it difficult to answer. Least of all sports facilities are provided for urban villages and villages. Most of the respondents, more than 55%, replied that there were not enough sports facilities in their communities.
Russia needs to learn from the development of mass sports in countries such as Finland, Sweden and Denmark, where the number of systematically engaged in physical activity and sports is over 65%. Projects in the field of physical activity and sports aimed at maximizing the involvement of all categories of the population contribute to achieving this goal. Today this problem can be solved through projects “Sport is the norm of life” and the implementation of the All-Russian sports complex “Ready for work and defense”. These projects will increase the involvement in the sphere of physical activity and sports of the middle and older age from 30 years and older population. Thus, summing up, we can say that in general, the dynamics of the development of activity and sports in both Russia and Europe is positive.
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Dynamics of population involvement in physical activity and sports from 2006 to 2018 (%)
|In the text|
The dynamics of the sport engage regularity in European countries from 2009 to 2017 (%)
|In the text|
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