Open Access

Table 1

Parameters of the hydrothermal regime and the main risks for fruit plants

STRESSORS Possible consequences
Internal (at the level of cells, tissues and metabolic systems) External (at the level of organs and plants as a whole)
Long-term (more than 5 days) significant (more than 10 ° C below average annual values) decrease in air temperature in the absence of snow cover damage to cell membranes, cell death, low-temperature tissue burns, a sharp inhibition of metabolic processes low temperature burn of annual branches
Thaws during the period when plants emerge from deep dormancy (late December - February) activation of cell division, increased enzymatic activity during a thaw, increased vulnerability of plant tissues, with a sharp drop in temperatur - damage to cell membranes, cell death phenotypic manifestations in winter are absent, with a sharp drop in temperatures after a thaw - death of generative buds, the risk of a decrease or loss of yield
Extremely low air temperatures in January-February or long periods of low negative temperatures (below -25 ° C) damage to conductive tissues, cells of the cambial layer, tissues of generative and vegetative buds freezing and death of annual branches, damage of the forks of perennial branches, the risk of crop loss
High level of insolation in March burn damage to tissues of the cortex parenchyma, cambial layer, conductive tissues bark burns on the trunk, burn injuries in the forks of skeletal branches, freezing oi annual growth
Low (to negative values) air temperatures in April-May damage or death of cells in the most active layers of wood tissue, damage to cells of generative and vegetative buds delay in plant development, damage to the stigma of the pistil and (or) its death, damage and (or) death of flowers, low degree of flowering, “ugliness” and necrotic damage to the leaf blade, significant weakening of plants
Low average daily air temperatures (< + 15 ° C) in May - June against the background of high air humidity and a large amount of precipitation (exceeding the average annual norm> 30%) low mitotic activity in the cells of root apexes, low photosynthetic activity of chlorophyll-containing tissues, inhibition of catalase enzyme activity, high level of peroxidase enzyme activity a prolonged flowering period, a low degree of fertilization of flowers, low fruit set, shedding of ovaries, chlorosis and necrotic damage to the leaf blade, massive development of diseases
Drought in July-September against the background of high and extremely high air temperatures necrosis of fetal tissue cells, lea blade, low photosynthetic and catalase activity and abnormally high peroxidase activity premature ripening and massive shedding of fruits, temperature burns on the surface of fruits, chlorosis and low hydration of the leaf blade, abnormal growth arrest of annual shoots, premature leaf fall; mass distribution of pests; ugliness, poor quality and reduced keeping quality of fruits
High level of daily dispersion of air temperatures imbalance of all metabolic processes, abrupt dynamics of enzymatic and photosynthetic activity external symptoms were not noted

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