BIO Web Conf.
Volume 15, 201942nd World Congress of Vine and Wine
|Number of page(s)||4|
|Published online||23 October 2019|
Success of organic and biodynamic system experiment to produce high quality wines
1 INRA, UR-0055 ASTER, 28, rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar, France
2 Chambre d'Agriculture Grand Est, 68000 Colmar, France
3 Association pour la Relance Agronomique, 67300 Schiltigheim, France
4 INRA, UE-0871 SEAV, 68000 Colmar, France
5 Rittmo-AgroEnvironnement, 68000 Colmar, France
6 EPLEFPA Rouffach-Wintzenheim, 68000 Rouffach, France
7 INRA, UMR LAE, 68000 Colmar, France
8 OPABA, 68000 Colmar, France
Reducing input use and in particular pesticide use is very important in OIV 2018 new resolutions. Also Europe and France promote research and co-design with winegrowers in more sustainable viticulture according to a combination of climate change. It is also very important to take into account soil diversity and Protected Designation Areas constraints to make sure that new wines will ensure the sustainability of the wineries. This study explores design, experiment and assess of new realistic viticulture production systems located in Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) areas and with already organic or biodynamic certification for six consecutive years, in winery production conditions. It also discusses the chosen assessment indicators and the adoption of such new production systems by winegrowers. Eleven cases were studied in a system experiment network in Alsace (France) and in six consecutive production years. Contrasted production years, PDO areas combined to organic or biodynamic certification allow testing the resilience of experimented systems over time. Combination of new practices are tested to drastically reduce input and in particular pesticide. Assessed performances of the systems deal with 14 main indicators: social acceptability (1) and economic viability (1), agronomy (yield (1), harvested berries quality (2), fungi damage (3), soil quality (1), and wine sensorial analysis (1) and environment (Frequency Treatment Index (1), Cupper rate (1), INDIGO® method (2)). Several innovations were selected by co-design with winegrowers: adding essential oil and Propolis to copper spraying; total grass cover of the vine site; new decision rules for rate and time pesticide spraying; decision aid tool; resistant grape varieties planted. The assessment results support that the performance of the 14 indicators is very good for most of the eleven systems during the six assessed years. Combinations of tested innovations are neither dangerous nor difficult to enforce in the field by the vineworkers. Innovations do not increase the cost of grape production. The yield ratios were satisfactory the 6-yeared of observation because calculated yield match with targeted yield. Harvested berries quality support that the 7 vine sites succeed in targeted total acidity and sugar rate according to the different PDO conditions every years. Wines were Alsace or Grand Cru PDO labelled and successful marketed. At least, the Treatment Frequency Index is reduced by an average of 40% for all vine sites and assessed years. TFI can be reduced at a maximum of 89% and TFI median is 38%. Cupper rate can be reduced at a maximum of 97% and Cupper rate median is 54%. I-pest from INDIGO® method indicate a minimal risk taking for groundwater, surface water, air and beneficial organisms contamination. And finally, flora richness indicator is stable or steadily increases during the 6 study years. In this study, we demonstrated that drastically monitoring reduction of pesticide and other inputs is possible. Chosen indicators allow a exhaustive assessment, but could also been aggregated all together to give a synthetic information to winegrowers and make them easier to adopt the innovative systems. Introduction of innovation combinations in highly sustainable organic and biodymanic systems are validated to produce high quality wines. Now, it is possible to serenely promote and disseminate these highly sustainable innovative systems, taking into account of course vineyard diversity.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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