BIO Web Conf.
Volume 11, 2018IV(VI)th All-Russia Scientific-Practical Conference “Prospects of Development and Challenges of Modern Botany”
|Number of page(s)||4|
|Published online||21 August 2018|
Antiviral activity of fungi of the Novosibirsk Region: Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius (Review)
Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090 Zolotodolinskaya st., 101, Novosibirsk, Russia
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The article reviews of antiviral properties of two species of fungi from the Novosibirsk Region of the genus Pleurotus. Fruit bodies and cultivated mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius are a promising source of extracts with polysaccharides, possessing antiviral and anti-cancer properties.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius are saprotrophic wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes of the Pleurotaceae family (figure. 1).
These mushrooms are edible, their fruit bodies are a valuable dietary product. Oyster mushrooms are cultivated on commercially as a food product. In Novosibirsk Region, in nature, these species are widespread, they grows on many species of woody plants, most often deciduous, but can also grow on coniferous plants.
P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius have medicinal properties, the polysaccharides contained in them exhibit a high antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiviral and other effects .
The aim of the study is to review the literature on the antiviral activity of extracts from fruiting bodies and mycelial cultures of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius. We plan to study the dependence of the antiviral activity of the fungi of the genus Pleurotus on their strain diversity.
Pleurotus ostreatus (A) and P. pulmonarius (B) on various substrates of the Novosibirsk Region.
Antiviral activity has been identified in many agaricoid and polyporoid fungi. In Russia, the antiviral activity of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes of Western Siberia was studied by us together with the employees of the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR (Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region) [8, 15, 17].
The antiviral properties of fungi began to be studied in the second half of the 20th century. For the first time in 1979, data were obtained on the antiviral activity of the extract from Lentinula edodes . In 1969, the antitumor activity of a polysaccharide extracted from the fruit body of P. ostreatus .
Polysaccharides of oyster mushrooms were first isolated from P. ostreatus. It was an insoluble polysaccharide Pleuran , commercial name Imunoglukan®. It possesses immunomodulating properties that make the body more resistant to infections and cancer  and has other properties. It was found that polysaccharides possess antitumor activity .
The antiviral properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of P. ostreatus were evaluated against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Antiviral activity correlates with the beta-glucans present in the polysaccharide fraction, which showed higher antiviral activity than aqueous extracts .
Water extracts with polysaccharides P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius were active against the herpes simplex virus of the second type. The antiviral activity of water extracts of fungi is associated with the presence of polysaccharides and increases with increasing concentration of polysaccharides .
Extracts with polysaccharides obtained from water extracts from the genus Pleurotus completely suppress the infectious activity of at least 1000 TCID50 of the West Nile virus .
Aquatic extracts of P. pulmonarius fruiting bodies showed high activity against influenza viruses (6.06 ± 0.18 lg for H5N1 and 5.73 ± 0.14 lg for H3N2) .
The antiviral activity of the in vitro mycelium of higher fungi against influenza A virus (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH was investigated. P. ostreatus inhibited the propagation of the influenza A / FM / 1/47 (H1N1) virus strain in MDCK cells that reduce the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. It was determined that P. ostreatus is effective against HSH-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza .
Ubiquitin-like glycoprotein was isolated from P. ostreatus, which inhibited the development of the human immunodeficiency virus .
It was found that the purified lectins of P. ostreatus as an adjuvant (1 mg / ml) also enhance the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B DNA vaccine .
Many polysaccharides exhibiting antiviral effects also possess antitumor properties [16, 19]. Data on the antitumor and antiviral activity of the same species of fungi indicate a correlation between these properties . The role of extracts obtained from basidiomycetes can only increase, because in addition to the prevention and treatment of viral infections, polysaccharides and other metabolites of fungi will contribute to the prevention of types of cancer that have a viral etiology .
The reported research was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the government of the Novosibirsk Region of the Russian Federation, grant № 18-44-543018.
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